What are the components of a URL?

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the unique URL of a website, page, or file on the Internet. Each URL consists of several parts and the way your site is built has different effects on site security and SEO. Theoretically, each valid URL refers to a unique source. These resources can be an HTML page, a CSS document, an image, and so on. Practically, there are some exceptions. The most common being that a URL or web address points to a resource that no longer exists or has been moved.

Parts of the URL

Each of these URLs can enter your browser’s address bar to tell it to open the page. The URL is consisted of different parts, some of which are obligatory and some of which are optional. In the following, we will examine the important and key parts of the URL.

1- Protocol

http is a protocol. The first part of the URL that tells your browser how to connect to a web server to send and retrieve information. Traditionally, most sites use the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http), and you can still find this version on the Internet. HTTP protocol or its secure version https is usually used for websites. Of course, there are other protocols, such as mailto (to open an email client) or ftp (to set up file transfers).

2- Domain name

www.example.com is a domain name. This part of the URL indicates which web server was requested. A domain name is an identifier for a specific site, which takes you directly to the home page, unless something else is added to the end. A domain name is actually made up of two smaller parts. The name of the website in the first part and then the Top – Level Domain (TLD). The second term or suffix refers to terms such as com and org that are placed at the end of the domain name. It is possible to use an IP address directly, but it is often not used on the web because it is not easy to understand. The domain name should be unique, attractive, short and concise.

Choose a domain name for the website

  • The domain name must be unique, brandable, and different from other competitors.
  • It should be short and concise, the shorter the domain name, the easier it is for users to remember. Try to keep your domain name between 6 and 17 characters long.
  • Choose a name that if you expanded your business, it would fit your business in the future.
  • Use keywords in the domain name. To have a significant impact on the site ranking in search engine results, put the keywords at the beginning of the domain name.

Choose the right extension for the domain

Choosing the right TLD is very important. Many sites have the com extension. com is the best option because most users are familiar with this extension and it is very common and widely used. However, you can use other types of extensions. There are actually hundreds of TLD options, many of which are regional or industrial.

3- Port

The number 80 in the image below indicates a port. This number indicates the technical port used to access the resources on the web server. If the web server uses standard ports in the http protocol (80 for http and 443 for https) this part will be removed from the URL, otherwise you have to bring this part.

4- Path

If you just want to refer to the first page of a website, all you need is the protocol and domain name, for example you go to the first page of Vancouver SEO using https://Vancouver-seo.net But each page or file of a website also has its own URL. The next part after the TLD and the port is known as the path.

5- Parameters

key1 = value1 & key2 = value2? are the additional parameters provided for the web server. These parameters are a list of keys and pair values ​​separated by the & symbol. The web server can use those parameters to do more work before returning to the source. Each server has its own rules towards parameters.

6- Anchor

#SomewhereInTheDocument is an anchor for another part of the resource itself. An anchor represents a kind of separation within the source, which instructs the browser to display the content at the point where it is bookmarked. For example, in an HTML document, the browser moves to the point where the anchor is defined. and for an audio or video document it moves to the point where the anchor represents. Note that the section after #, which is also known as the id of the piece, is never sent to the server with a request.


At first, URLs seem more complex than other components of a website. That’s why getting to know the basics of URL structure is a smart move. Only then will you know how to choose the best possible option for your site. You can consider an internet address like a regular mailing address. You can consider an internet address like a regular mailing address in which the protocol indicates the postal service you want to use, the domain name being equal to the name of the city or county; The route indicates additional information such as the number of apartments in the building; And finally, the anchor is the representative of the real person you mentioned in your letter as the recipient.

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